Web pages, reference materials, and additional information are provided below for further understanding of animal related activities/rules or regulations.
- Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (2011)
- Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching (2010)
- AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia (2013)
- Guidelines of the American Society of Mammalogists for the Use Of Wild Mammals in Research (2010)
- Guideline to the Use of Wild Birds in Research (2010)
- Guidelines for the Use of Live Amphibians and Reptiles in Field and Laboratory Research (2004)
- Guidelines for the Use of Fishes in Research (2003)
- Occupational Health and Safety in the Care and Use of Research Animals (1997)
- Replacement - Replacing the use of animals with non-animal techniques (i.e., computer models, in vitro assays, or cell culture).
- Reduction - Reducing the number of animals used (i.e., limiting group sizes, sharing tissues, or performing experiments simultaneously).
- Refinement - Changing experiments or procedures to reduce pain and distress in animals (i.e., new anesthetics, analgesics, or surgical procedures).
USDA Pain Categories
- Category B - Animals are those that are being bred, conditioned, or held for use in teaching, testing, experiments, research, or surgery but have not yet been used for such purposes, however minor.
- Category C - Animals are those that are subjected to procedures that involve no pain or distress, or procedures that would not require the use of pain-relieving drugs (i.e., animal behavior or routine injections and blood samples).
- Category D - Animals are those that are subjected to potentially painful procedures for which anesthetics, analgesics, or tranquilizers will be used (i.e., surgery with appropriate anesthesia and postoperative analgesia).
- Category E - Animals are those that are subjected to painful or stressful procedures without the use of anesthetics, analgesics, or tranquilizers (i.e., lethal dose studies or pain studies that do not allow pain-relieving agents).